Written by Connecticut Children’s Physician, Chris Carroll, MD, MS
Summer is here, and with it comes a perennial worry for parents: drowning. This fear is justified, as drowning is the second most common cause of death in children aged 1-14 years, and is potentially preventable.
Following a recent tragic death of a child in Texas, there have been several stories in the news about “dry drowning.” However, some of these stories don’t address the difference between dry drowning and delayed drowning in children, and have caused confusion for many caregivers and parents.
Dry drowning occurs when a child is submerged in water, and during this sudden shock to the system, their larynx, or throat, spasms and closes up and the child’s heart may stop beating. The child’s lungs are “dry” since the closed throat keeps water from being aspirated, or getting into their lungs. Children with dry drowning have immediate and severe symptoms. This is different from “wet” drowning, which is when a child aspirates or inhales water into their lungs. Dry drowning is estimated to account for 10-15% of all drowning deaths.
Delayed drowning (sometimes called secondary drowning) is different from dry drowning and far less common. Delayed drowning follows a child’s inhalation of water, but severe symptoms can develop one to 24 hours after the event. Children with delayed drowning may have milder symptoms at first, but then these symptoms worsen over time. At first, these symptoms can be hard to detect, particularly in young children. Symptoms include trouble breathing (breathing fast or use of chest or stomach muscles to help with breathing), coughing, vomiting, chest pain, sleepiness, decreased energy level, or irritability. Since these symptoms can be hard to spot, if something about a child concerns a parent or caregiver following an event, the child should be evaluated by a healthcare provider immediately.
The CDC recommends several steps for reducing the risk of drowning in children. These include designating a responsible adult to supervise children swimming, always swimming with a buddy, teaching your child to swim, learning CPR, and avoiding the use of water wings or “noodles” which may provide a false sense of security for poor swimmers.
Symptoms following submersion and inhalation of water can be difficult to spot. If a parent or caregiver has any concerns about a child’s breathing or mental status after an event, they should take the child to a healthcare provider for evaluation.