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Health Information For Parents
Whether you’re a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. Here are answers to some common queries that mothers — new and veteran — may have.
Although breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants, in some cases, breastfeeding (or exclusive breastfeeding) may not be possible or an option. Your baby’s health and happiness is, in large part, determined by what works for you as a family. So if you need to supplement, your baby will be fine and healthy, especially if it means less stress for you.
Babies who need supplementation may do well with a supplemental nursing system in which pumped milk or formula goes through a small tube that attaches to the mother’s nipple. They also can be fed pumped milk or formula by bottle.
Some experts feel that giving bottles too early can create “nipple confusion,” leading a baby to decide that the bottle is a quicker, better option than the breast. To avoid this, be sure that your little one has gotten used to and is good at breastfeeding before you introduce a bottle. Lactation professionals recommend waiting until a baby is about 3 weeks old before offering artificial nipples of any kind (including pacifiers).
If you’re using formula because you’re not producing the amount of milk your baby needs, nurse first. Then, give any pumped milk you have and make up the difference with formula as needed.
If you’re stopping a breastfeeding session or weaning from breastfeeding altogether, you can begin to replace breastfeeding with bottle feeds. As you do this, pump to reduce uncomfortable engorgement so you will not have problems with plugged ducts or mastitis. As you eliminate nursing sessions, your milk supply will decrease and your body will begin to adapt to produce enough milk to accommodate your new feeding schedule.
Starting your breastfed baby on formula can cause some change in the frequency, color, and consistency of the stools (poop). Be sure to talk your doctor, though, if your baby is having trouble pooping.
If your baby refuses formula alone, you can try mixing some of your pumped breast milk with formula to help the baby get used to the new taste.
If possible, you should have someone else give your little one the bottle at first. This is because babies can smell their mothers and they’re used to receiving breast milk from mom, not a bottle. So try to have someone else — such as a caregiver or partner — give a breastfed baby the first bottle.
Also consider either being out of the house or out of sight when your baby takes that first bottle, since your little one will wonder why you’re not doing the feeding as usual. Depending on how your baby takes to the bottle, this arrangement may be necessary until he or she gets used to bottle feeding.
If your baby has a hard time adjusting to this new form of feeding, just be patient and keep trying.
For babies who are exclusively breastfed, doctors recommend waiting until a baby is about 6 months old. But some infants may be ready sooner.
How will you know if your baby is ready? Babies who are ready to eat solids foods:
Wait until your baby is at least 4 months old and shows these signs of readiness before introducing solids. Babies who start solid foods before 4 months are at a higher risk for obesity and other problems later on. They also aren’t coordinated enough to safely swallow solid foods and may choke on the food or inhale it into their lungs.
When the time is right, start with a single-grain, iron-fortified baby cereal (rice cereal has traditionally been the first food for babies, but you can start with any you prefer). Start with 1 or 2 tablespoons of cereal mixed with breast milk, formula, or water. Another good first option is an iron-rich puréed meat. Feed your baby with a small baby spoon, and never add cereal to a baby’s bottle unless your doctor recommends it.
At this stage, solids should be fed after a nursing session, not before. That way, your baby fills up on breast milk, which should be your baby’s main source of nutrition until age 1.
When your baby gets the hang of eating the first food, introduce a variety of other foods, such as puréed fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, or yogurt. Wait a few days between introducing new foods to make sure your baby doesn’t have an allergic reaction.
Experts recommend introducing common food allergens to babies when they’re 4–6 months old. This includes babies with a family history of food allergies. In the past, they thought that babies should not get such foods (like eggs, peanuts, and fish) until after the first birthday. But recent studies suggest that waiting that long could make a baby more likely to develop food allergies.
Offer these foods to your baby as soon as your little one starts eating solids. Make sure they’re served in forms that your baby can easily swallow. You can try a small amount of peanut butter mixed into fruit purée or yogurt, for example, or soft scrambled eggs.
Note: There is no benefit to offering fruit juice, even to older babies. Juice can fill them up and leave little room for more nutritious foods, promote obesity, cause diarrhea, and even put a baby at an increased risk for cavities when teeth start coming in.
In their first few months, babies usually don’t need extra water. On very hot days, most babies do well with additional feedings. But you may want to offer your infant water, especially if your baby’s pee is dark or your baby pees less often than usual.
Once your baby is eating solid foods, you can offer a few ounces of water between feedings, but don’t force it. Water that is fortified with fluoride will help your baby develop healthy teeth and gums. If you live in an area with nonfluoridated water, your doctor or dentist may prescribe fluoride drops.
If you’re a new mom, breastfeeding your baby can feel like a challenge. Check out this article for information on common nursing positions, proper latching-on techniques, and how to know if your baby is getting enough to eat.
Is your baby is ready for solid foods? Learn how and when to get started.
At this age, babies start to explore table foods.
Here are answers to some common questions about what breastfeeding mothers should and shouldn’t eat and drink.
Here are answers to some common questions about going out in public as a breastfeeding mom – from how to do it discreetly to taming sneaky leaks.
Here are answers to some common questions about pumping your breast milk – from buying a pump to making the process a little easier.
Here are answers to some questions about common breastfeeding concerns – from biting to spitting up.
Here are answers to some common questions about your milk supply – from having too much to having too little.
Here are answers to some common questions about how to keep breast milk and how to clean and sterilize supplies, from bottles to nipples to breast pump parts.
Here are answers to some common questions about breastfed babies and sleep – from where they should snooze to when they’ll finally start sleeping through the night.
Shopping for formula-feeding supplies can be daunting. Here are answers to some common questions about formula feeding.
Get answers to some common formula-feeding inquiries, from how much newborns eat to what their diapers might look like.
Check out these formula-feeding bottle basics, from how to mix bottles to how to store them safely.
Read about how to manage common formula-feeding concerns, from spitting up and fussiness to gas and milk allergies.
Here are answers to common questions about getting started with breastfeeding.
Here are answers to some common questions about preventing and reducing breastfeeding discomfort, such as nipple and breast pain.
Here’s info about how often to breastfeed your baby, how long it takes to nurse, and much more.
Making a decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. There are some points to consider to help you decide which option is best for you and your baby.
Knowing how to pump and store breast milk is an important part of feeding your baby. Learn how in this step-by-step video.
With a little preparation and practice, you can bottle-feed your baby. Learn how in this step-by-step video.
Find out if your baby is ready for solid foods, and if so, what to give, how to give it, and which foods to avoid.
Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
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