Visit our foundation to give a gift.
View Locations Near Me
Main Campus – Hartford
Connecticut Children’s – Waterbury
Urgent Care – Farmington
Specialty Care Center – Danbury
Connecticut Children’s Surgery Center at Farmington
Specialty Care Center – Westport
Search All Locations
Find a doctor
Find A Doctor
Amenities and Services
Who’s Who on Care Team
Getting Ready for Surgery
What to Expect—Picture Stories
Pay a Bill
Understanding the Different Fees
Pricing Transparency and Estimates
Raytheon Technologies Family Resource Center
Family Advisory Council
Legal Advocacy: Benefits, Education, Housing
Electronic Health Records
Share Your Story
Pay a Bill
Login to MyChart
Clinical Support Services Referrals
About the Network
Join the Network
Graduate Medical Education
Continuing Medical Education
MOC/Practice Quality Improvement
Educating Practices in the Community (EPIC)
Learning & Performance
Meet our Physician Relations Team
Request Medical Records
Join our Referring Provider Advisory Board
View our Physician Callback Standards
Read & Subscribe to Medical News
Register for Email Updates
Update Your Practice Information
Refer a Patient
Health Information For Parents
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
People of any age can get meningitis. But it can spread easily among those living in close quarters, so teens, college students, and boarding-school students are at higher risk for infection.
If dealt with quickly, meningitis can be treated successfully. So it’s important to get routine vaccinations, know the signs of meningitis, and get medical care right away if you think that your child has the illness.
Most cases are caused by bacteria or viruses, but some can be due to certain medicines or illnesses.
Many of the
that cause meningitis are fairly common and cause other routine illnesses. Both kinds of meningitis spread like most other common infections do — someone who’s infected touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn’t infected.
Bacterial meningitis is rare, but is usually serious and can be life-threatening if not treated right away.
In some cases of bacterial meningitis, the bacteria spread to the meninges from a severe head trauma or a severe local infection, such as a serious ear infection (otitis media) or nasal sinus infection (sinusitis).
Many different types of bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis. In newborns, the most common causes are group B strep, E. coli, and less commonly, Listeria monocytogenes. In older kids, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are often the causes.
Viral meningitis (also called aseptic meningitis) is more common than bacterial meningitis and usually less serious.
Many of the viruses that cause meningitis are common, such as those that cause colds, diarrhea, cold sores, and the flu.
Meningitis symptoms vary, depending on the person’s age and the cause of the infection. The first symptoms can come on quickly or start several days after someone has had a cold, diarrhea, vomiting, or other signs of an infection.
Common symptoms include:
Infants with meningitis might have different symptoms. Babies might be cranky, feed poorly, and be sleepy or hard to wake up. It may be hard to comfort them, even when they’re picked up and rocked. They also may have a fever or bulging fontanelle (soft spot on head).
Other symptoms of meningitis in babies can include:
Bacterial meningitis can be very serious. So if you see symptoms or think that your child could have meningitis, it’s important to see the doctor right away.
If meningitis is suspected, the doctor will order tests, probably including a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to collect a sample of spinal fluid. This test will show any signs of
and whether the infection is due to a virus or bacteria.
Most cases of viral meningitis end within 7 to 10 days. Some people might need to be treated in the hospital, although kids usually can recover at home if they’re not too ill. Treatment to ease symptoms includes rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain medicine.
If bacterial meningitis is diagnosed — or even suspected — doctors will start intravenous (IV) antibiotics as soon as possible. Fluids may be given to replace those lost to fever, sweating, vomiting, and poor appetite.
Complications of bacterial meningitis might need extra treatment. Someone with shock or low blood pressure might get more IV fluids and medicines to increase blood pressure. Some kids may need extra oxygen or mechanical ventilation if they have trouble breathing.
Bacterial meningitis complications can be severe and include neurological problems, such as hearing loss, vision problems, seizures, and learning disabilities. Because impaired hearing is a common complication, those who’ve had bacterial meningitis should have a hearing test after they recover.
The heart, kidneys, and
also might be affected, depending on the cause of the infection. Although some kids develop long-lasting neurological problems, most who get a quick diagnosis and treatment recover fully.
Routine immunization can go a long way toward preventing meningitis. The Hib, measles, mumps, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines can protect against meningitis caused by those germs.
Kids also should get the meningococcal conjugate vaccine when they’re 11 or 12 years old, with a booster shot at age 16. Kids older than 11 who haven’t been vaccinated also should be immunized, particularly if they’re going to college, boarding school, camp, or other places where they’ll live in close quarters with others.
Kids 2 months to 11 years old who are at higher risk for infection should get the meningococcal conjugate. This includes those who:
A newer type of meningococcal vaccine called MenB protects against a type of meningococcal bacterium not covered by the older vaccine. Kids 10 years and older who have a higher risk for infection will also get this vaccine. For other kids, the decision to get the MenB vaccine should be made together with their parents and the doctor.
Kids and adults should wash their hands well and often, particularly before eating and after using the bathroom, and if they work closely with kids (as in a daycare). Avoid close contact with someone who looks ill and don’t share food, drinks, or eating utensils.
In some cases, doctors may give antibiotics to anyone who has been in close contact with a person who has bacterial meningitis to help prevent infection.
Get medical care right away if you think that your child has meningitis or you see symptoms such as:
A baby who has a fever, is cranky, and isn’t feeding well should be seen right away by a doctor.
If your child has been near someone who has meningitis, call your doctor to ask about preventive medicine.
Find out when and why your child needs to get this vaccine.
Which vaccines does your child need and when? Use this immunization schedule as a handy reference.
Washing your hands well and often is the best way to keep from getting sick. Here’s how to teach this all-important habit to your kids.
Immunizations have protected millions of children from potentially deadly diseases. Learn about immunizations and find out exactly what they do – and what they don’t.
The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.
A spinal tap is an important test for diagnosing illnesses, such as meningitis.
Did you know that the most important thing you can do to keep from getting sick is to wash your hands? If you don’t wash your hands frequently, you can pick up germs from other sources and then infect yourself.
You may be wondering what the deal is with meningitis because you’ve heard frightening stuff about meningitis outbreaks in the news.
Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.
© 1995-2020 KidsHealth®. All rights reserved.
Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.