• Parents

    A to Z: Colic

    Colic is defined as crying for more than 3 hours a day, for more than 3 days a week, for at least 3 weeks.

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    A to Z: Failure to Thrive

    Failure to thrive refers to a child’s inability to gain weight and grow as expected for kids of the same age and gender. Most diagnoses are made in the first few years of life.

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    Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the United States. It happens when someone shakes an infant.

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    Apnea of Prematurity

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a condition in which premature infants stop breathing for 15 to 20 seconds during sleep. AOP usually goes away on its own as a baby matures.

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    Birth Defects

    Some birth defects are minor and cause no problems; others cause major disabilities. Learn about the different types of birth defects, and how to help prevent them.

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    Birthmarks

    Birthmarks that babies are born with, or develop soon after birth, are mostly harmless and many even go away on their own, but sometimes they’re associated with certain health problems.

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  • Parents

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

    Babies who are born prematurely or who experience respiratory problems shortly after birth are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sometimes called chronic lung disease.

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    Cleft Lip

    A cleft lip is when a baby’s lip doesn’t form properly during pregnancy. Most kids can have surgery to repair one early in life.

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    Cleft Palate

    A cleft palate is when a baby is born with a cleft (gap) in the roof of the mouth. Most kids can have surgery to repair them early in life.

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    Cleft Palate With Cleft Lip

    A cleft palate with a cleft lip is when a baby’s lip and palate (roof of mouth) don’t form properly during pregnancy. Most kids with cleft lip and palate are treated successfully with no lasting problems.

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  • Parents

    Colic

    Colic is common in babies – but that doesn’t make it easier for parents to handle. Learn what colic is, what causes it, and what you can do about it.

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    Common Diagnoses in the NICU

    Learn about common NICU conditions, what causes them, how they’re diagnosed, how they’re treated, and how long babies might stay in the unit.

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    Congenital Cataracts

    A baby with congenital cataracts has clouding in one or both eyes. Doctors do surgery to treat them.

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    Congenital Heart Defects

    Heart defects happen when there’s a problem with a baby’s heart development during pregnancy. Most heart defects can be treated during infancy.

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    Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that didn’t develop correctly or doesn’t work as it should. This is called congenital hypothyroidism.

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    Constipation

    Constipation is a very common problem among kids, and it usually occurs because a child’s diet doesn’t include enough fluids and fiber. In most cases, simple changes can help kids go.

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    Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis) in Infants

    This harmless condition – the infant form of dandruff – causes rough, scaly patches on a baby’s skin.

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    Craniosynostosis

    Craniosynostosis is when seams between bones in the skull close too soon. When this happens, the skull can’t expand grow as it should, and it develops an unusual shape.

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    Diaper Rash

    Diaper rash is a very common infection that can cause a baby’s skin to become sore, red, scaly, and tender. In most cases, it clears up with simple changes in diapering.

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    Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart defect where the aorta connects to the heart in the wrong place.

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    Ebstein Anomaly

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. It can cause problems that range from very mild to very serious.

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    Egg Allergy

    Helping your child manage an egg allergy means reading food labels carefully, being aware of what he or she eats, and carrying the right medicines in case of an allergic reaction.

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    Erythema Toxicum

    Erythema toxicum is a common rash seen in full-term newborns. No treatment is needed and it goes away on its own.

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    Failure to Thrive

    Most kids grow well but some have ”failure to thrive.” This means they don’t gain weight as expected and may not grow as tall as they should.

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    Febrile Seizures

    Febrile seizures are full-body convulsions caused by high fevers that affect young kids. Although they can be frightening, they usually stop on their own and don’t cause any other health problems.

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    Fetal Abdominal Cyst

    A fetal abdominal cyst is a bubble of fluid in a balloon-like bag in the belly of an unborn baby.

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    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    If a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy, her baby could be born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which causes a wide range of physical, behavioral, and learning problems.

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    Fetal Lung Mass

    A fetal lung mass is an unusual lump that grows inside or next to an unborn baby’s lung. Some are treated before birth, while others are removed after the baby is born.

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    Fibular Hemimelia

    Babies who have fibular hemimelia are born with a short or missing fibula. Experts who treat bone problems have several options to help kids with a hemimelia.

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  • Parents

    Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    Babies can develop a flat spot on the back of their heads, usually from sleeping in the same position too long. Alternating your baby’s sleep position and providing lots of “tummy time” can help.

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    Galactosemia

    Some babies are born with the metabolic disorder glactosemia. They must drink soy-based formula instead of breast milk or a cow’s milk-based formula.

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    Gastroschisis

    Gastroschisis is when a baby is born with the intestines, and sometimes other organs, sticking out through a hole in the belly wall near the umbilical cord.

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    Hemangiomas: Suzanne’s Story

    When Anna was born, she developed red spots that her parents learned were hemangiomas, benign birthmarks that she eventually outgrew. Her mother tells her story.

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    Hernias

    Hernias are fairly common in kids, and hernia repair is one of the most common pediatric surgeries.

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    Hunger and Malnutrition

    Even people who have plenty to eat may be malnourished if they don’t eat food that provides the right nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

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    Hypospadias

    Hypospadias is when the urethra — the tube that drains pee from the bladder to outside the body — opens in a different place instead of at the tip of the penis.

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    Infant Torticollis

    Babies with this condition have trouble turning their heads, due to muscle tightness. Simple stretching exercises and physical therapy can help babies get better.

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    Interrupted Aortic Arch (IAA)

    An interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare heart condition in which the aorta doesn’t form completely. Surgery must be done within the first few days of a baby’s life to close the gap in the aorta.

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    Intestinal Malrotation

    Malrotation is a type of obstruction caused by abnormal development of the intestines while a fetus is in the womb. Find out more about this condition and the complications it can cause.

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    Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    IUGR is when a baby in the womb doesn’t grow at the expected rate during the pregnancy. Women with IUGR should eat a healthy diet; get enough sleep; and avoid alcohol, drugs, and tobacco.

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    Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Newborns

    An intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding in and around the brain’s ventricles. Most babies with a mild IVH do well.

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    Intussusception

    Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel blockages in very young children. Quick treatment can help them recover without lasting problems.

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    Jaundice in Newborns

    Jaundice is when a baby has yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. Most types of jaundice go away on their own.

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    Laryngomalacia

    Laryngomalacia is a common cause of noisy breathing in infants.

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  • Parents

    Lead Poisoning

    Long-term exposure to lead can cause serious health problems, particularly in young kids, so it’s important to find out whether your child might be at risk for lead exposure.

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  • Parents

    Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)

    Meconium aspiration can happen before, during, or after labor and delivery when a newborn inhales a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Although it can be serious, most cases are not.

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  • Parents

    Medical Care and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    You probably have lots of questions about your baby’s health. When should you call the doctor, and what medical care should you expect for your baby at this age?

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    Medical Care and Your 4- to 7-Month-Old

    Because your baby begins to show his or her personality during these months, your questions may move from simple sleeping and eating concerns to those about physical and social development.

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    Milk Allergy in Infants

    Almost all infants are fussy at times. But some are very fussy because they have an allergy to the protein in cow’s milk, which is the basis for most commercial baby formulas.

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    Myelomeningocele

    Myelomeningocele is a type of spina bifida in which a baby is born with a gap in the bones of the spine.

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    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is an intestinal disease that usually affects preemies. Medicines and therapy can help babies with NEC.

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    Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is when a baby has withdrawal from a medicine or drug the mom took while she was pregnant.

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    Neonatal Infections

    The vast majority of newborns enter the world healthy. But sometimes, infants develop conditions that require medical tests and treatment.

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    Newborn Brachial Plexus Injuries

    During childbirth, a brachial plexus injury can happen if the baby’s neck is stretched to one side.

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    Nut and Peanut Allergy

    If your child is allergic to nuts or peanuts, it’s essential to learn what foods might contain them and how to avoid them.

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    Omphalocele

    A baby born with an omphalocele has an opening where the umbilical cord goes into the belly. Some openings close on their own, but many need treatment, including surgery.

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  • Parents

    Oral Thrush

    Oral thrush, a very common infection in infants that causes irritation in and around the baby’s mouth, often goes away on its own without medical treatment.

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    Orofacial Clefts

    A cleft is when tissues of the mouth or lip don’t form properly when a baby is developing in the womb. The good news is that orofacial clefts are treatable.

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  • Parents

    Orofacial Clefts

    With this birth defect, tissues of the mouth or lip don’t form properly when a baby is developing in the womb. The good news is that cleft lip and palate are treatable.

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  • Parents

    Phenylketonuria (PKU)

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder caused by a defect in the enzyme that breaks down an amino acid. PKU is treatable when it is found early.

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  • Parents

    Port-Wine Stains

    For most kids, these birthmarks are no big deal — they’re just part of who they are. Read about port-wine stains, how to care for them, and, if necessary, what treatments are available.

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  • Parents

    Pyloric Stenosis

    Pyloric stenosis can make a baby vomit forcefully and often. It can lead to serious problems like dehydration, and needs medical treatment right away.

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    Questions to Ask When Your Baby’s in the NICU

    Having a newborn in the NICU can be a stressful time. Often, parents forget to ask important questions. This list can help you prepare for the next time you talk to your baby’s care team.

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  • Parents

    Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Retinopathy of prematurity, which can happen in premature babies, causes abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina. Some children will need surgery to prevent vision loss or blindness.

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  • Parents

    Sepsis

    Sepsis is a serious infection usually caused when bacteria make toxins that cause the immune system to attack the body’s own organs and tissues.

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  • Parents

    Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. It’s usually detected before a baby is born and treated right away.

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  • Parents

    Spina Bifida Occulta

    In spina bifida occulta, a baby is born with a gap in the spine’s bones, but the spinal cord and its covering do not push through it.

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  • Parents

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants 1 month to 1 year old. Though SIDS remains unpredictable, you can help reduce your infant’s risk.

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  • Parents

    Tay-Sachs Disease

    A baby with Tay-Sachs disease is born without an important enzyme, so fatty proteins build up in the brain, hurting the baby’s sight, hearing, movement, and mental development.

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  • Parents

    Teething Tots

    Teething can be a tough time for babies and parents. Here are the facts on teething, including tips for baby teeth hygiene and relieving pain.

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  • Parents

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)

    For some newborns, the first few breaths of life may be faster and more labored than normal because of a lung condition called transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN).

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  • Parents

    Umbilical Hernias

    An umbilical hernia shows up as a bump under the belly button. If a hernia doesn’t go away by age 4 or 5 or causes problems, doctors may recommend surgery.

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    Undescended Testicles

    Shortly before birth, a boy’s testicles usually descend into the scrotum. When a testicle doesn’t make the move, this is called cryptorchidism, or undescended testicles.

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  • Parents

    When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    If your child has a birth defect, you don’t have to go it alone – many people and resources are available to help you.

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    When Your Baby’s Born Premature

    Premature infants, known as preemies, come into the world earlier than full-term infants. They have many special needs that make their care different from other babies.

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  • Parents

    When Your Baby’s in the NICU

    Learn what a NICU visit will be like for your little one, what you can do to help, and how to find support for yourself.

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