The elbow is a simple hinge joint connecting the upper arm to the forearm. It is a very stable joint because of its bones, which include the upper arm (humerus) and the forearm bones (the radius and the ulna). Several muscles cross the elbow joint to allow the elbow to flex and extend, as well as supinate (palm facing up) and pronate (palm facing down).


The muscles that surround the elbow are the muscles of the upper arm, the biceps and triceps. In addition to the upper arm muscles, some muscles that control the wrist movements of flexion and extension cross the elbow joint. Lastly, the muscles that rotate the forearm are located in the elbow region. Injuries of the elbow can occur in any of the muscles that surround the joint. Joint dislocations are rare but serious injuries. Other structures of the elbow that can be injured are the ligaments. Common ligament injuries are associated with overhead throwing.



  • Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
  • Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Tears
  • Synovial Impingement Syndrome (SIPL)
  • Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow)
  • Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD, Little Leaguer’s Elbow)